Cholesterol levels to reduce the risk of heart disease is on everybody's mind. This Top Ten list begins with some simple dietary ways to reduce cholesterol
and improve HDL-LDL ratios. The cholesterol story does not end with eggs and fiber.
What Cholesterol Is Made From
The list continues by discussing what cholesterol is made from, and what breaks it down into hormones and vitamins used by the body. The list ends with a technical discussion of cholesterol lowering drugs and their side effects.
High Levels Of Cholesterol
Cholesterol levels that are high are associated with coronary artery disease High levels of cholesterol are associated with a high risk of heart disease. Atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, is characterized by fatty streaks along the walls of blood vessels and deposits of cholesterol and calcium. People with elevated cholesterol levels are much more likely to have atherosclerosis than people with low cholesterol levels.
HDL and LDL
HDL (high density lipoprotein) transports fat and cholesterol from the body to the liver to be broken down. LDL (low density lipoprotein) transports cholesterol and fat from the liver to the body for use and storage. HDL is considered protective against heart disease and LDL is considered to contribute to atherosclerosis.
Fiber Works Cholesterol can be lowered
by fiber. Fiber from beans, oats, psyllium seed, and fruit pectin are known to reduce cholesterol levels. Oatmeal is a water soluble fiber that contains mucilage which is beneficial for the digestive tract. Oatmeal is also a tasty and quick breakfast cereal.
Cholesterol And Eggs
Most dietary cholesterol comes from egg yolks, and egg eaters are more likely to die from heart disease even when serum cholesterol levels are not elevated. Eating eggs, however, does not increase serum cholesterol as much as saturated fat which is found in butter, cheese, milk, chocolate and meat.
Sugar lowers HDL
Eating sugar reduces HDL (the good cholesterol) and increases other risk factors linked to heart disease. This may be because sugar is a carbohydrate which forms acetyl CoA which is the precursor of cholesterol and fat.
Olive oil lowers LDL
Olive oil has been found to lower LDL cholesterol. especially when it replaces saturated fat in the diet. It is a very old custom in Italy to serve olive oil on a plate to dip their fresh baked bread into. Cold pressed extra virgin olive oil has a distinctive flavor and a slight greenish tinge that is characteristic of high quality olive oil.
Cholesterol Is Made From Carbohydrates
Cholesterol is made in the body from acetyl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA is formed from glucose which is found in carbohydrates (sugar, bread, etc.) Besides forming cholesterol, acetyl CoA can also be used to make energy or fats. Therefore a diet low in carbohydrates may be helpful in reducing cholesterol
Important Vitamins And Hormones
Cholesterol is used in the body to make isoprenes which form vitamin A, D, E and K, bile acids and hormones including aldosterone (which regulates sodium and potassium levels in the body), cortisol (an anti-inflammatory hormone), estrogen and testosterone (the “sex” hormones). Therefore cholesterol is a vital precursor molecule in the body.
Cytochrome p450 Degrades Cholesterol
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HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors Decrease Cholesterol Formulation
HMG CoA reductase is the enzyme that forms cholesterol from acetyl CoA and acetoacetyl CoA. Cholesterol lowering drugs such as Lovastatin (Mevacor) inhibit HMG CoA reductase. Lovastatin also has many side effects, including abdominal pain, blurred vision, cataracts, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, dyspepsia, elevated hepatic enzymes, flatulence, headache, myalgia, myasthenia, myopathy, nausea and vomiting, pruritis (itchy skin), and rhabdomyolysis. * Note: Image(s) the courtesy of http://www.dreamstime.com.